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  Identification and Study of Industrial Soils in Sistan and Baluchestan Province
Industrial Soils in Sistan
Identification and Study of Industrial Soils in Sistan and Baluchestan Province
 
  Page 1
 
   Abstract:
  
   Contract of “Identification and Study of Industrial Soils in Sistan and Baluchestan Province” project was signed between Sistan & Baluchestn Industries and Mines Organization and Zarkuh Ekteshaf Consulting Engineers.
   In the first stage, all related data and geologic and topographic maps at 1:100000 and 1:2500000 scales were collected and studied. Then, 20 zones with the potential of industrial soil formation were selected based on primary studies, spread of ores, indices and mines in Sistan & Baluchestan Province and location of appropriate outcrops within the study area. Remote sensing studies were carried out for each zone.
   In the next stage, 4 images were prepared using different methods:
   - False color images from bands 4, 6, 8
   - False color images from bands 6, 4, 5
   - Images from the analysis of band relative intensity
   - Images from SAM analysis
   Results showed that false color images were not accurate and useful for locating the zones with the potential of industrial soil formation. Therefore, images from the analysis of relative band ratio and SAM analysis were used for further prospecting. Prospecting areas were identified using results of images processing and previous studies.
   Finally, prospecting and exploration were carried out in prospecting areas. 45 samples were taken from appropriate outcrops and sent to Zarazma lab for XRF analysis. Obtained results showed the priority of prospecting areas:
   1) Tamandan-Sardarya-Valan in the western part of Mount Taftan
   2) Khosrin in western-southwestern Bazman
   3) Near Abolfazl Mosque in northeastern Bazman
    Further exploration activities were done within the first area (Tamandan-Sardarya-Valan). 16 trenches of 100 meter length and 2 pits of 7.1 meter length were dug and 246 samples were taken. The samples included:
   - 10 rock samples for the preparation of thin section and microscopic studies
   - 154 samples for XRF analysis
   - 60 samples for XRD analysis
   - 10 samples of 20 kg for physical testing
   - 2 samples of 100 kg for semi-industrial testing
   - 10 samples for refractory testing (P.C.E)
   Results of mentioned tests were
   - Al2O3 content was 6.20-24% and its mean was 17.58%. Al2O3 content was 15-20% in 88% of samples.
   - Fe2O3 content was 0.29-24.50% and its mean was 3.70%. Fe2O3 content in most parts of the study area was more than the satisfactory level.
   - Na2O and K2O total content were 0.26-6.10 and the mean of their total content was 3.56%.
   - SO3 content was 0.06-8.60% and its mean was 1.43%. SO3 content in 46 samples out of 154 samples was less than 0.5%, so SO3 content in most parts was more than the satisfactory level.
   - XRD analysis of 60 samples showed montmorillonite as the major mineral, so bentonite clay was prevalent and kaolinite clay was infrequent. Also, presence of 1-2% MGO shown in the results of XRF analysis was an indicator of bentonite samples.
   - PCE test on 10 mineral samples showed their thermal tolerance was 1280-1510 degrees centigrade.
   - Physical tests and tile and ceramic making tests on 10 samples indicated that some samples had appropriate physical properties like strength, plasticity, contraction and expansion, etc.
   Semi-industrial test on 2 samples also showed the appropriateness of the samples for tile and ceramic making. Enamelling and glazing tests on the semi-industrialized samples indicated the suitability of samples too.
   Generally, exploration studies in “Tamandan-Sardarya-Valan” zone at the western part of Mount Taftan show that industrial soil of the area is mainly bentonite. Also, due to the high level of Fe2O3 and SO3, the mineral does not have high quality. In a few parts of the area, low levels of Fe2O3 and So3 are seen, so the quality of the mineral is high.
 
 
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