Mineral Resources of Iran
1- Fossil Fuels:
Most of economic coal resources of Iran are situated in upper Triassic and middle lower Jurassic Shemshak and Nayband Formations (7500-8500 kilocalory efficiency for cokable coal and 7000-7800 kilocalory for thermal coal). Coal bearing zones of Iran are located in two structural zones of Alborz and Central Iran. The coal was formed in active tectonic basins. Coal host rocks are conglomerate, sandstone, shale, silt and calcareous sandstone. Shemshak Formation is the main host rock of Alborz coals in case which in Central Iran, equivalent formations have similar situation but upper Triassic-lower Jurassic in age. Table 1 displays the reserves of coal, which estimated during primary, semi-detailed and detailed exploration studies.
Table 5-1 the amounts of Iranís coal reserves, which preliminary prospecting, detailed and complementary stages were carried out for them.
Remarks/ percent from total reserves/ amount (million tons
1-1-1- Alborz Coal Bearing Zone:
Alborz is an important coal-bearing zone, which includes three parts of northern Khorasan, eastern Alborz and western Alborz. Coalmines of the zone are distributed along the Alborz Mountain Belt. Shemshak formation, which contains coal layers, overlays the dolomite member of Elika formation with an erosional contact and also is overlaid by Lar limestone. Shemshak formation has a continental dominant origin. Alborz coals are mostly thermal type and lesser cokable. Total absolute reserve of identified coal deposits in Alborz is 800-850 MT, 200-250 MT cokable and remnant ones is thermal. Existing coal types in the region include: Cannel coal, gas coal, fat gas coal, fat coal, cokable coal, fat cokable coal and anthracite. The thickness of coal beds change among 0.2 to 2m. All of coal deposits in Alborz are extracting by underground methods.