فارسي | English
  About Us | About Iran | Contact Us | Staff Info[Geoportal Info] [Maps] [Mining Info] [Other Activities]  
 
  News | Events | Photo Gallery | Downloads | Links | Kids  Search    Region    Scale    Subject   :Access to information by   Home | Newest   
 
  
Flood Hazards of Kheyrrud (Ton
Flood Hazards of Kheyrrud (Tonekabon)
 
  Page 1
 
   Kheyrrud originates from 2155 m elevations of mount Kalamlu and area of its drainage basin is more than 130 km2. Width of Alluvial fan for Kheyrrud is about 2-2.5 km. This river reaches to beach plain in Kheyrrud Kenar. Length of Kheyrrud is about 3 km in Caspian beach flood. Kheyrrud cuts Noshahr-Ruyan coastal road in km: 12. Gradient of Kheyrrud from mountain (where it originates) to southern Najjardeh is 17/1000 and from southern Najjardeh to margin of Caspian Sea is 14/1000. Local base level (LBL) of Kheyrrud is -22 m in area of city. There is not Hydrography station in river path.
   Morphology: Path of Kheyrrud is narrow valley in its mountainous region. Path of this river has a river valley pattern in area of Kheyrrud city. Kheyrrud has several meanders and index of meander for this river is mean.
   There are 2 groups of river terraces in beach plain for Kheyrrud:
   - H1 (River terraces with down surface level): Boundary of 20-year floodwater (Mean height: 2 m)
   - H2 (River terraces with high surface level): Boundary of 50 or 100-year floodwater (mean height: 5.5 m)
   Materials of terraces are coarse-grained in the upstream of river and gradually more fine-grained they appear the farther away they are from foot hills (in size of gravel & sand with thin layers of Loess).
   Walls of terraces have been formed from without cohesion (unconsolidated and slumping) alluviums (Recession rate of terraces: High).
   Vegetation on surface of H2 is compact, but active flood plain is without vegetation.
   Human interference in natural environment of Kheyrrud- land use changes:
   - Construction in flood plain and on surface of H2 for Kheyrrud
   - Development of padi soils on surface of terraces for 20-year floodwater
   - Uncontrolled extraction of sand and gravel
   - Accumulate of wastes and structural rubbishes in around of river
   - Construction of available roads in active or seasonal flood plain
   Characteristic of flood plain for Kheyrrud:
   - Width of active flood plain: more than 60 m
   - Width of seasonal flood plain: 20-35 m
   - Width of alternative flood plain: 40-50 m
   History of flood in Kheyrrud: The active, seasonal and alternative flood plains are observed in this river (Flood risk of Kheyrrud: 2).
   The mainly floods happened in years of 1347 & 1353. Two relatively large-scale floods happened in years of 1381 & 1383. The floodwaters of Kheyrrud have not been had any victims.
   Floodwater Velocity of Kheyrrud and its devastative potential (in mountainous region) is too high. The devastative potential and flow height for this river is decreased when it reaches to Caspian beach plain.
   Vulnerable area of Kheyrrud: This area lies between 1.6 km of southern Kheyrrud and 400 m of northern Kheyrrud city (length: 2 km).
   Main damage: Erosion and destruction of walls in concave parts of meanders
   Mitigation plans of flood damages:
   - Usage of protect pile method (accumulating of large rock blocks: Armor) in order to protection of agronomy lands on terraces from erosion
   - Exact determination of flood plains with different return periods and product of large scale land use maps
   - Determination of areas with high erosion risk
  
 
 
Publications  Library
Glossary  Papers
 
 
 
 
FAQ  Members
Job Offer  Training
 
 
 
 
• Medical Geology Database 
• Geological Atlas of Roads 
• Marine Geology 
• Geography information 
• Mines and Deposits of Iran 
• Land Geophysics Database- Iran 
• Landslide Database of Iran 
• Exploration Area DB 
• Copper Database 
• Gold Database  
• Geoscience Laboratories 
• Mineral Information 
• Bibliographic Database 
• Geochemistry Database 
• Earthquake database 
• Abandoned mines DB of Iran 
• Mineral processing database 
• Minerals database 
 
 
 
 
Login Name:
Password:
Sign Up for membership ]
 
 
 
   Others Activities:• Geo Hazard Of South Caspian • Geoscience database of ALBA • Geoscience Database of ECO 
• GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRAN • Tajikistan Geoscience Database • Geo Database of Venezuela • 4th National Development Plan 
• Export & Import Regulation Act     
 
 
Maps:• Map of Iran's Earthquake • Distribution Map of mineral Processing Plants 
• Mineral Distribution Map of Iran • Geosciences laboratories distribution map of Iran • Orohydrographic Map of Iran 
• Select state on iran map • Geological Map of Iran(1:1000, 000 Scale) • 2500 K Magnetic Lineament Map of Iran 
    
 
Best viewed:1024*768
National Geoscience Database Of IRAN
URL:www.ngdir.ir
Contact Mail:Info@ngdir.ir
 
 
 Search with:           
Designed by Payvand Software Group  Privacy | Copyright | Disclaimer