Safarud originates from 2500 m elevations of southern Ramsar and this river joins Caspian Sea in an area 15 m above the sea level. Area of drainage basin for Safarud is more than area of drainage basin for adjacent rivers. Salam Rud, Safarud and Berkeh Rud are main source of large alluvial fan for Ramsar county that role of Safarud in formation of this alluvial fan is more than two other rivers. Length of Safarud in Caspian beach plain is about 3 km. Intersection place of Safarud with coastal road is in west of Emam Khomeyni square.
Morphology: Safarud has a river valley pattern in its mountainous region. Although is observed bights due to rock barriers in parts of path for Safarud. Maximum width of Safarud in mountain part is about 20 m and its maximum width in Caspian beach plain is about 40 m. Morphology of Safarud in Caspian beach plain consists stony bars that it have been confined by low terraces from two sides. The 2-4 m walls are considered boundary of flood plain with 20-year return period. Construction is impermissible in the area. Vegetation and 20-year terraces indicate that 50 or 100-year floodwater has not been existed in Safarud in recent 2s or 3s.
Irregular human interference in natural environment of Safarud:
- Limitation of stream-bed: Construction of concreting walls in parts of Safarud path in order to protection of buildings. In limitation of Safarud stream-bed, water flow causes under cutting of concreting walls. Expansion of under cutting causes damage to walls. If barriers do exist in floodwater path, limitation of river causes considerable damages.
- High extraction from sand and gravel of Safarud: Consumedly extraction causes more leaching in stream-bed of this river.
History of flood in Safarud: Stream flood of Safarud happens approximately yearly that some of floodwaters were very devastating (Flood risk of Safarud: 2).
Oldest floodwater of Safarud happened in 1347. Floodwater of 1356 was from flash floods of Safarud. Floodwater in Safarud happened at least once in a year in 1370s. There have been had 2 victims in floodwater of 1369. Floodwater of 1380 was from flash floods in recent years too.
Vulnerable area of Safarud lies between 1.8 km of southern Ramsar (End of Shahid Beheshti avenue - Leg of Cabin Lift) and 800 m of northern Ramsar (near the factory of sand & gravel).
Mitigation plans of flood damage:
- The best of method: Creation of possibility for speedy movement of floodwater flow (Specially in areas that stream-bed decreased)
- Need for exact investigation of Safarud path in Caspian beach plain and generation of large scale map from 10, 20, 50, 100- year flood plains (In order to employ in development projects - Justification for building and justification for extraction from sand and gravel of stream-bed)
- Necessity of data collectors installation in order to provide floodwater modeling