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Words List   (A)
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   A horizon  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    The uppermost zone in the soil profile, from which soluble salts and colloids have been leached, and in which organic matter has accumulated. Reference: R.L. Bates & J.A. Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983.
 
 
  
   A/D  
Subject: Remote Sensing
    Analog to Digital. Used to refer to the conversion of analog data to its digital equivalent. Ref: Remote Sensing Glossary Reference Information for Virtual Nebraska
 
 
  
   AA  
Subject: Geography
    A term of Hawaiian origin. Used in reference to a basaltic lava that occurs in flows with a fissured, rough and jagged surface.


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   AA Lava Flow  
Subject: Geology
    `A`a flow `A`a (pronounced "ah-ah") is a Hawaiian term for lava flows that have a rough rubbly surface composed of broken lava blocks called clinkers. The incredibly spiny surface of a solidified `a`a flow makes walking very difficult and slow. The clinkery surface actually covers a massive dense core, which is the most active part of the flow. As pasty lava in the core travels downslope, the clinkers are carried along at the surface. At the leading edge of an `a`a flow, however, these cooled fragments tumble down the steep front and are buried by the advancing flow. This produces a layer of lava fragments both at the bottom and top of an `a`a flow.
 
 
   Photo Comment: Glowing `a`a flow front advancing over pahoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i.
  
   AAS   
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for chemical analysis especially at low levels.
 
 
  
   Ablation   
Subject: Geography
    Surface removal of ice or snow from a glacier or snowfield by melting, sublimation, and/or calving.


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   Abrasion   
Subject: Geography
    Physical wearing and grinding of a surface through friction and impact by material carried in air, water, or ice.


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   Abrasion  
Subject: Geology
    The grinding and scraping of a rock surface by the friction and impact of rock particles carried by water, wind, and ice. Reference : Tarbouk, E.J. & F.K. Lutgens, (2006), EARTH, 8th edition, Pearson Education International.
 
 
  
   Abrasion  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    The mechanical wearing or grinding away of rock surfaces by the friction and impact of rock particles transported by wind, ice, waves, running water, or gravity. Reference : R.L. Bates & J.A.Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983
 
  
   Absolute Humidity  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    The content of water vapor in air, expressed as the mass of water per unit volume of air. Reference : R.L. Bates & J.A.Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983
 
  
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