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Subject: Resources & Reserves
    The cieling or roof of an underground mine. Reference: R.L. Bates & J.A. Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983.
 
 
  
   back-door cold front  
Subject: The Earth
    A cold front moving south or southwest along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States.
 
 
  
   Backfill  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    Earth or other material used to refill a ditch, quarry, or other excavation, or waste rock used to support the roof after removal of ore from a stope. Reference: R.L. Bates & J.A. Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983.
 
 
  
   backing winds  
Subject: The Earth
    Winds which shift in a counterclockwise direction with time at a given location (e.g. from southerly to southeasterly), or change direction in a counterclockwise sense with height (e.g. westerly at the surface but becoming more southerly aloft). The opposite of veering winds.
 
 
  
   Backshore   
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    1. the upper zone of the shore or beach, lying between the higher-water line of mean spring tides and the upper limit of shore-zone processes; it is acted upon by water only during exceptionally severe storms or unusually high tides. It is separated from the foreshore by the crest of the most seaward berm. 2. The area lying immediately at the base of a sea cliff. 3. berm. Reference: R.L. Bates & J.A. Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983.
 
 
  
   Backswamp   
Subject: Geology
    A poorly drained area on a floodplain resulting when natural levees are present. Reference : Tarbouk, E.J. & F.K. Lutgens, (2006), EARTH, 8th edition, Pearson Education International
 
 
  
   Backwash  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    The seaward return of water running down the foreshore of a beach following an uprush of waves; also, the seaward-flowing mass of water so moved. Reference: R.L. Bates & J.A. Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983.
 
 
  
   Backwash   
Subject: Geography
    The return water flow of swash. This sheet of water flows back to ocean because of gravity.


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   Badlands   
Subject: Geography
    (2) Term used to describe a semi-arid landscape that has been influenced by heavy fluvial erosion. Characterized by deep ravines and gullies, shape ridges, and a generally barren surface.


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   Badlands  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    An intricately stream-dissected topography, developed on surfaces with little or no vegetative cover. Underlying material is generally unconsolidated or weakly cemented clay or silt, sometimes with gypsum or halite. Badlands may develop in humid areas if vegetation is removed through overgrazing or other causes. Reference: R.L. Bates & J.A. Jackson, DICTIONARY OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS, Third Edition, American Geological Institute, 1983.
 
 
  
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