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   X Ray diffractometer  
Subject:  Laboratories
    X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is one of the primary techniques used by solid state chemists to characterize materials. Powder XRD can provide information about crystalline structure (or lack thereof) in a sample even when the crystallite size is too small for single crystal x-ray diffaction. The diffractometer is enclosed with a leaded Plexiglass shield to minimize exposure to scattered X-rays.


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   XEDIT  
Subject: The Earth
    XEDIT- is the name of the full-screen text editor which is standard to the VM operating system. Xedit is used to create and edit data files and source-code files.
 
 
  
   Xenolith  
Subject: Geology
    An inclusion of W\D1elted country rock in an igneous piu ton. Reference:Tarbouk, E.J. & F.K. Lutgens, (2006), EARTH, 8th edition, Pearson Education International.
 
 
  
   Xenolith  
Subject: rock
    Xenolith is not a rock, but more a phenomenon. A Xenolith is a piece of rock that ended up inside another rock. Mostly a xenolith is part of the roof of an intrusion, that fell into the melt. Because the composition of the roof and the melt are mostly different, the chunk of roof will be altered by the heat and chemistry of the melt. These alterations resemble the contact aureole of the intrusion. Consequently Xenoliths are mostly similar to rocks like skarn, fenite etc.
 
 
  
   Xerophyte  
Subject: Geology
    A plant highly tolerant of drought. Reference:Tarbouk, E.J. & F.K. Lutgens, (2006), EARTH, 8th edition, Pearson Education International.
 
 
  
   xerophytes  
Subject: The Earth
    Drought-resistant vegetation.
 
 
  
   X-ray fluorescence  
Subject:  Laboratories
    This method is based on releasing electrons by the secondary x-ray. The primary x-ray that is produced in tungsten Molybdenum or Chromium tube impacts on sample and released electron. This process makes pore spaces in electron shells. These spaces are filled by electrons with higher energy level. The electronic transition produces the secondary x-ray (fluorescence) that is used to measure the different elements.


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   XRD  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    [exploration] X-ray Diffraction. A beam of X-rays is foccussed on a powdered sample where crystals have varied and random orientation. Rotating the sample through about 120 degrees and using a graphite monochromator to give an incident beam of only the K alpha Cr line, x-rays will be reflected (not fluoresced) at the appropriate Bragg angle. The 2D spacings between the denser layers in the crystal lattice can be measured. XRD can be used to identify minerals, but also to analyse one element in one mineral by selecting a known 2D spacing and counting the intensity. (This OUGHT to make sense to those who know a little about XRD).
 
 
  
   XRF  
Subject: Resources & Reserves
    [exploration] The X-ray Fluorescence spectrometer or spectrometry. Like the probe, the XRF measures the intensity of emitted radiation, in this case from a fused glass or pressed powder sample an inch or more across, but the excitation energy is provided, not by an electron beam, but by a primary X-Ray source of very high energy produced by focussing an electon beam inside a sealed tube onto a metallic target which may be Cr, W, Rh, etc. These primary tubes operate at 2 3 kilo-watts and a 100 KV. XRF is still one of the best analytical tools for determination of major elements as well as the TE Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Th, Ba in bulk samples. Detection limits can be as good as 0.2 ppm, more commonly about 1 3 ppm.
 
 
  
 
 
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