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   AA  
Subject: Geography
    A term of Hawaiian origin. Used in reference to a basaltic lava that occurs in flows with a fissured, rough and jagged surface.


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   Ablation   
Subject: Geography
    Surface removal of ice or snow from a glacier or snowfield by melting, sublimation, and/or calving.


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   Abrasion   
Subject: Geography
    Physical wearing and grinding of a surface through friction and impact by material carried in air, water, or ice.


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   Abyssal  
Subject: Geography
    Pertaining to zones of great depth in the oceans or lakes into which light does not penetrate; occasionally restricted to depths below 2,000 meters but more usually used for depths between 4,000 and 6,000 meters.


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   Adiabatic   
Subject: Geography
    A process in which heat does not enter or leave a system. In the atmospheric sciences, adiabatic processes are often used to model internal energy changes in rising and descending parcels of air in the atmosphere. When a parcel of air rises in expands because of a reduction in pressure. If no other non-adiabatic processes occur (like condensation, evaporation and radiation), expansion causes the parcel of air to cool at a set rate of 0.98 per 100 meters. The opposite occurs when a parcel of air descends in the atmosphere. The air in a descending parcel becomes compressed. Compression causes the temperature within the parcel to increase at a rate of 0.98 per 100 meters.


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   Adit  
Subject: Geography
    An opening driven horizontally into the side of a mountain or hill for providing access to a mineral deposit.


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   Adret  
Subject: Geography
    The slope (usually equatorward, or southward in the Northern Hemisphere) of a mountain that faces into the sun. The term is originally and most often used in referring to mountains in the Alps. Tilted toward the sun, an adret is characterized by higher temperatures, a longer growing season, less snow cover and a shorter duration of snow cover, and a higher timber line and snow line than the shaded side (the ubac).


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   Aeolian   
Subject: Geography
    the erosion, transport, and deposition of material by wind, and work best when vegetation cover is sparse, or absent.


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   Aero triangulation  
Subject: Geography
    The process of developing a network of horizontal and or vertical positions from a group of known positions using direct or indirect measurements from aerial photographs and mathematical computations.


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   Affluent  
Subject: Geography
    a branch that flows into the main stream


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