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   Manganese is energy ciritical
  NGDIR News Section-- In 1917 the War Industries Board (WIB) noted that the United States was deficient in certain minerals of great importance to war making and self defense. A pre-World War II list of materials contained a total of 29 materials: 14 were strategic materials that 'must be based entirely or in substantial part on sources outside the United States.' There were 15 critical materials that would be easier to source, perhaps even domestically, than the strategic materials. The 1939 .....[More]
   Data Illuminate a Mountain of Molehills Facing Women Scientists
  NGDIR News Section-- rom the peer-review process to our very concept of what it means to be brilliant, studies show that women face subtle biases and structural barriers to success in the geosciences. Every female scientist has a story. One woman was warned not to wear her wedding ring to job interviews. Another noticed that her adviser showered more praise on his male students. On one occasion, a woman sat silent while the man next to her turned his back to talk to other (male) colleagues.....[More]
   We Need a New Definition for "Magma"
  NGDIR News Section-- Confusion over the meaning of "magma" can generate popular misperceptions, including a nonexistent molten sea underneath Yellowstone National Park. We propose a different definition. Magma is a fundamental constituent of the Earth. Issues as diverse as volcanic hazard assessment and planetary evolution studies rely on knowledge of magma’s properties, origin, evolution, and significance. Thus, the definition of "magma" should be simple and universally agreed upon, but the .....[More]
   Santa Maria Volcano - Guatemala
  NGDIR News Section-- Santiaguito Lava Dome Complex. Santa Maria Volcano: Introduction Santa Maria, a stratovolcano in the southwestern Guatemalan volcanic highlands, is the site of one of the twentieth century's largest eruptions. It is also the home of Santiaguito, one of the most active lava dome complexes in the world. The group of four lava domes formed at the foot of Santa Maria twenty years after the volcano's devastating 1902 eruption, and the domes have been growing ever since. The .....[More]
   Understanding Causes and Effects of Rapid Warming in the Arctic
  NGDIR News Section-- A new German research consortium is investigating why near-surface air temperatures in the Artic are rising more quickly than in the rest of the world. For meteorologists and climate scientists, the Arctic is one of the most interesting regions on Earth. There climate changes currently take place at an unprecedented pace and intensity, and the reported dramatic changes have not been completely anticipated. The Arctic is warming more rapidly than the rest of the world, a p.....[More]
   NASA Dust-on-Snow Data Help Colorado River Managers
  NGDIR News Section-- When Michelle Stokes and Stacie Bender look out across the snow-capped mountains of Utah and Colorado, they see more than just a majestic landscape. They see millions of gallons of water that will eventually flow into the Colorado River. Dust on Snow podcast (MP3; 11MB) The water stored as snowpack there will make its way to some 33 million people across seven western states, irrigating acres of lettuce, fruits and nuts in California, generating enormous amounts of elect.....[More]
   Is Another 1,000 (or 3,000) Carat Diamond Around the Corner?
  NGDIR News Section-- In the fall of 2015, Lucara's Kerowe mine in Botswana announced the discovery of the first gem-quality diamond larger than 1,000 carats in more than 110 years. Now, Lucara and others have been doubling down on the search for more mega-stones and believe it's only a matter of months or a few years- not centuries- until another 1,000-carater turns up. Why are they optimistic that such a once-in-a-lifetime find could be repeated so quickly? Two reasons: economics and tech.....[More]
   Mineral Rights
  NGDIR News Section-- Basic information about mineral, surface, oil and gas rights. Fee Simple - Complete Ownership In most countries of the world, all mineral resources belong to the government. This includes all valuable rocks, minerals, oil or gas found on or within the Earth. Organizations or individuals in those countries cannot legally extract and sell any mineral commodity without first obtaining an authorization from the government. In the United States and a few other countries, o.....[More]
   Control algorithms could keep sensor-laden balloons afloat in hurricanes for a week
  NGDIR News Section-- Controls engineers have developed practical strategies for building and coordinating scores of sensor-laden balloons within hurricanes. Using onboard GPS and cellphone-grade sensors, each drifting balloon becomes part of a 'swarm' of robotic vehicles, which can periodically report, via satellite uplink, their position, the local temperature, pressure, humidity and wind velocity. Using onboard GPS and cellphone-grade sensors, each drifting balloon becomes part of a swarm''.....[More]
   Backpackers demonstrated resounding leadership in aftermath of Nepal earthquake
  NGDIR News Section-- A first-of-its-kind study exploring the experiences of tourists exposed to a natural disaster immediately in its aftermath reveals four dominant themes: emotional turmoil, quick recovery, springing into action, and connection to the army. Prof. Haya Itzhaky was enjoying a routine day in Nepal on April 25, 2015. She had been in the region for about three months studying the behavior of post-Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Israeli backpackers when tragedy struck: a powerful ear.....[More]
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