President: Dr. Dalal Chief Editor: Dr. Khorshid_Dust
Publication Date: 2011 Publication No: v11,n33
- The Role of Cap Debris Deposits on Geomorphic Sensitivity of Landscape: Slopes of North of Ghechi-Ghalasi Mountain (Northwest of Iran)
This paper aims to difine the sediment? landform and dynamic context of part of slopes near Ghechi-ghalasi stock in northern slope of Mishow-Dagh chain in northwest of Iran. The surfaces of studied slopes are mostly covered by surficial deposits that are yielded from weathered materials (mix of boulders? gravels? sand and clay) of stock and thinned by keeping away from it. These deposits significantly affect erosion rates? geomorphologic evolution? landuse and density of drainage. 19 sections were created along the Aralan rural road for the study of thicknesses of surficial deposits and quality of their rehabilitation on the lower weak Miocene formations. Results show that the residuum seems to be stable under current climate than uncovered slopes of the study area. The presence of debris deposits on Miocene sediments (mainly marly) in study area? have an inevitable role on slope stability. In spite of such importance of these debris deposits? removal of debris cover and the exposure of Miocene formations as the result of recent anthropogenic erosion and repairs (road widening and other repairing operations)? caused aggravation of geomorphic processes activity such as mass wasting and gully and rill erosion. From the data gathered? a conceptual model? applicable to other similar slopes? is proposed to explain the evolution of geomorphic sensitive slopes and associated potentially hazardous slope instabilities.
Keywords: Cap debris deposits, Landscape geomorphic sensitivity, Slope instability, Ghechi, Ghalasi stock, Northwest of Iran
- Climatic Zoning of West and Northwest of Iran with an Approach to Pavement Management of Roads
Since the early times the primary methods were used to make civil projects and especially transportation networks at present time which are designed as complex and exact methods? the climate and its properties have usually had direct interference for making tendency of structure as an important and vital parameter.
Iran which has located in south west of Asia between the 25-42 degrees N latitude? had been the pass way of different climatic systems and masses whose results have been nothing but to produce various climatic regions in the country. Therefore? regarding the variety of regions in this land? there is exact necessity of great attention to climatic phenomena to manufacture and exploit transportation projects. In this study to zone the same climatic properties make attention to use the west and North West region of the country based on road pavement management necessary.
This zoning has been exploited for a period of 15 years through 10 meteorology parameters from 35 synoptic stations in the regions. Firstly? the achieved data has been converted to the standard Z score? then selected by cluster analysis method? as an advanced statistical analysis to clustering the stations and finally zoning. The produced zoning was placed on the ground water layer and the final zoning was made in GIS environment. For the latest step the necessary suggestions were presented to appropriate road pavement management for each class.
Keywords: Iran, Zoning, Road pavement, Cluster analysis, GIS
- Design of Natural Park by Using Natural, Social and Economic Indexes (Case study: Boukan?s Black Mountain)
The case study region is black mountain?s natural park placed in suburbs of Boukan city. The area of this park is 52 (ha) and is 1360 to 1370 meters above sea level. General gradient of Black Mountain is 12 degrees. In this study first we characterize a recreational planning and un-planned regions. Then for regions planned to recreation in respect to the existence of sideway and main roads? tree types were considered for evaluation through unit designer. Factors were determined for evaluation of units with respect to growing place conditions. The explanation of each unit was carried out separately? and with the creation of related table? qualitative and quantitative scores were allocted. With summing up of related scores? the potential capability of each unit was determined and finally with the connection of related units? the recreational potentials classification map was produced.
Keywords: GIS, Natural Parks, Recreation regions, Without recreation regions, Boukan Black Mountain
- Combination of analytic functions of GIS for designing optimum green space locations (The case study: Tabriz)
The aim of this research is the examination of site selection for establishment of a new park in the urban region by using the spatial analysis capability in a Geographic Information System (GIS).
For this purpose? recognition of the effect and value of factors that influence the site selection are important. The factors for these means are shopping centers and bus terminals that are weighted by experts.
The data base for this research was the maps which are producted by N. C. C in. dgn format. After topology for these maps three layers were extracted including the layer of parks position that exist in the urban region? layer of bus terminals and layer of shopping centers position Then the layers of shopping centers and bus terminals were buffered by a buffer function and overlayed together and the value of each pixel was defined. In this condition if any park does not exist in the urban region? the greatest value in position will be the best position for park selection. However? about 7 parks were already established. The greatest value does not take the best position for new park selection. Using Thiessen polygons around each existing park the surrounding areas of parks were defined.
By synthesizing overlay and Thiessen polygon layers? and extracting the values of each parks? and finally calculating the variance of each park? we found out that parks had different variances.
The best position for new parks therefore? is the one whose selection will minimize the differences between minimum and maximum variances.
Keywords: GIS, Spatial analysis, Topology, Site selaction, Overlay, Thiessen polygon
- Zoning of Erosion Susceptibity of Shoor River Catchment, NW Iran by Using USLE
Soil erosion on upland areas is a highly complex phenomenon. The reflection of effects of such feature on sloping surfaces results in many complicated processes. If semi-arid conditions are dominat in these areas? linear erosion forms are as gullies? rills and ravine types. Sloping surface in the uplands with semi-arid climate are very sensitive to environment disturbance and soil texture type intensifies erosion. Gullies are sensitive to ranges of environmental disturbance so they can provide insight into environmental changes. Shoor river catchment (located from 36° 5´ to 37° 20´ N and from 46° 43´ to 47° 15´ E) in recent times is experiencing many changes in sloping surfaces. This article is concerned with the investigation and analyzing of erosion factors. Universal Erosion Models (USLE) are used in the area and the area was zonned by GIS. The results of study suggest that slope and soil textural type play major roles in soil erosion increment. The results of field study show that people's impact on slope surfaces is very intensive and also these results show that the decrease of plant covers has important role in the formation and development of many types of erosion. In the recent times? the development of deep gully and the amount of rill depths is high. These changes are important reasons for the increase of amount of sediment and their deposition on floodplains and also behind the dams.
Keywords: Erosion, Linear erosion, Zoning, Catchment of Shoor River, Eastern slopes of Sahand Mt
- Role of cultural heritage in quality of life for rural residents Case: The central part of city Lamerd
Rural cultural heritage represents the historical background. Rural culture that shapes each country in many years has been realized. Rural cultural heritage? including features such as rural communities? local habits? and customs related to food and clothing? architecture? monuments and buildings are historic? music? art? local languages and spiritual and moral values. Each country should specify social phenomena in rural areas where its past traditions remain? should be maintained. Unfortunately? rural and cultural heritage in our country with low interest aside is declining. Although in recent years? efforts by some government agencies and NGOs interested in conservation of cultural heritage made culture and traditions of society be better identified and the resultant revival sought? but no information regarding the current generation of value and importance of cultural heritage has been recognized. In order to achieve the goals of sustainable rural development causes of these effects? material and spiritual values at risk are located and destroyed. This applied research is a way to cross-sectional article. Techniques used for data collection are document type field work. The results of field studies by the authors identified and ranked 10 villages with cultural heritage in the city of Lamerd and explained the quality of life indicators at the level of households living in 160 villages. The study shows that cultural heritage has no effects on the quality index of residents living in rural central city. For this reason the most effective indicator of the quality of rural housing and rural education has been cultural heritage.
Keywords: Cultural heritage, Sustainability, Quality of life, Sustainable development, The central part of Lamerd
- Statistical Survey of Discharge and Sediment in Gara Sou Drainage Basin (Golestan Province)
The water flowage in erodable surfaces causes displacement of materials on mountain slopes and river beds that is called transport or sediment bringing. The main aim of sediment transport research is finding a relationship between the amount of transported materials? hydraulic parameters and characteristics of river bed materials. These kinds of researches in the last decades are getting very interesting. In this research? by use of discharge? sediment and precipitation of the stations with at least 20 years data? the relationship of discharge and sediment in Ghare Sou drainage basin in Golestan Province was considered. We used the regression method in the way of estimating sediment yield. After arrangements of data and estimating regressional relationships of discharge? sediment yield and precipitation? the amount of monthly and yearly stations were analyzed and the best choise in determining the relationship between discharge and sediment yield was selected. Also in order to analyze geologic formation? geology maps with the scale 1:10000 were digitized. Results showed that although Siysh Ab had the highest discharge amount? Ghaz Mahale hydrometer station showd the highest sediment amount and the maximum suspended load in the month of Mehr. Generally the effect of precipitation is low on discharge and sediment yield of the rivers? and only recorded sediment of Ghaz Mahale gets more effects from precipitation. From geological point of view? a major part of drainage basinis formed from loess and alluvium. Sediment yield is high in some stations especially in Ghaz Mahaleh in wich the slope is relatively high. The result of the research introduces the exponential model as the best fitness in considered stations.
Keywords: Discharge, Suspended load, Geological formations, Regression Relation, Sediment rating curve, Golestan Province, Iran
- Analysis and Statistical Modeling of Temperature in Bushehr Station (1951-2005)
In this study? different statistical methods for realizing the behavior (trend? fluctuation? oscillation) of temperature were used in Bushehr city. Run Test with 5% confidence Interval showed that temperature annual observations are not accidental. Trend estimate using parametric and non-parametric techniques (Pearson correlation? Spearman? Man-Kendal) were done on the observations. The results showed that annual temperature has meaningful process. Spectral analysis was used for estimate the latent cycles in annual temperature. It was indicated that in reliability level of 95% except first harmonic was? harmonic 18 and 21 meaningful. Markov chain model on monthly temperature of Bushehr monthly temperature data from the two-mode Markov chain model followed and according to this model? the occurrence likelihood of warm months at Bushehr was 0.6019 and occurrence likelihood of cold months was 0.5217 and return period of warm months about 5 months and return period of cold months was about 7 month. Finally? to anticipate the annual temperature in Bushehr? ARIMA Model has been used accordingly; three models have been fitted on Bushehr temperature time series. Based on goodness of fit including the normalizing the residuals and their independence test and significant normal based on AIC criteria? The ARIMA (o? 1? 1) model was more fitable on annual temperature. Therefore? for the next 20 years? temperature in confidence interval of 95% was anticipated.
Keywords: Trend, Cycle, Spectral analysis, Harmonic, ARIMA Model, Busheh