Natural disasters and geological hazards (e.g. earthquake, flood, landslide, avalanche) caused vast damages and loss in Iran. So engineering geological mapping was authorized by GSI. These maps based on their goal could be multidiscipline. Main data layers of maps include:
- Geology and geomorphology: for presentation of morphotectonics, morphodynamics, and mrphogenic features of area.
- Hydrology and hydrogeology: hydrological information about the drainage zones, isometric lines of groundwaters, chemical composition, permeability, capillarity and etc.
- Geotechnics: soil classification, standard penetration test, consolidation, contraction, density, specific weight, soil chemistry, compressional strength, shear strength, divergence and so on.
- Building materials coding layer: land categorization in to loose, middle, hard, explosive and swamp for excavating goals.
- Rock units layer: rock classification of both Quaternary and pre-Quaternary units.
These maps could help planners and engineers for site selection and reduction natural hazards.
Urban development is associated with changes in natural environment, which caused irregularities in life. Geoenvironmental changes constrained by human often result in natural devastations like chemical and biological polluting of surface waters and groundwaters, land subsidence and collapse, destroying base rocks, abnormality of drainage basins, flood, destruction of environment. So urban geological mapping in the scales of 50k to 0.005k is under preparation by GSI.